Week 6: Foreign Aid in Rwanda and Kenya

Put forth by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, both the CAP and the CHAP contribute to the success of humanitarian aid all over the world.

The Consolidated Appeals Process or CAP is a program cycle for aid organizations to plan, coordinate, fund, implement, and monitor their response to disasters and emergencies. This process allows for the continued development of aid programs and humanitarian action by working with NGOs, the UN, and many more. The Common Humanitarian Action Plan (CHAP) outlines the priorities, roles, and framework of aid in a particular country (IASC). In Kenya, there as been numerous CHAPs, including emergency humanitarian response plans and mid-year reviews. There has not been a CHAP in Rwanda (UNOCHA).

In this provocative talk, journalist Andrew Mwenda asks us to reframe the “African question” — to look beyond the media’s stories of poverty, civil war and helplessness and see the opportunities for creating wealth and happiness throughout the continent.

 GNI stands for gross national income and is the sum of both domestic and international values. It differs from gross national product, which takes into account productive output. Below is the respective GNI per capita, converted to current US dollars from the World Bank.

Kenya: $1,160

Rwanda: $630

Most developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are low income, but both of these countries fall below the average.

Countries of the world by GNI (PPP) per capita (source: wikipedia.org)

Countries of the world by GNI (PPP) per capita (source: wikipedia.org)

Oxfam called for 0.7% of a country’s GNI to be donated to international aid. This target, proposed in 1970, attempts to raise Official Development Assistance or ODA (OECD).

One part of the MDGs was to raise ODA for developed countries; solidifying financial support of LDCs (UN). ODA consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (World Bank). In Kenya, over two and a half billion dollars of ODA has been received since 2010 (World Bank). In Rwanda, this number skyrockets to over six billion (World Bank). These goals are met through donations from donor governments and member states, which aim for effective development cooperation (UN).

OXFAM logo (source: oxfam.org)

OXFAM logo (source: oxfam.org)

In 2012 United States spent $30.55 billion on foreign aid, $80.37 per person (OXFAM). Claiming moral responsibility, economic interests, and national security, foreign aid policy is key in international cooperation. Kenya received $625 million, while Rwanda received $156 million for refugee assistance and global health initiatives (Huffington Post and Find the Best).

US Aid in 2015 (source: Mint Press News)

US Aid in 2015 (source: Mint Press News)

Policy Coherence for Development (PCD) is an approach and policy tool for integrating the economic, social, environmental and governance dimensions of sustainable development at all stages of domestic and international policy making (Wikipedia). In order to promote development and therefore the MDGs, OECD and the UN aim to make policy and cooperation as coherent as possible.

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