Jeffrey Sachs writes in “The End of Poverty” and discusses major issues and problems plaguing developing/emerging countries.
The main ones are:
Absence of Trade: People/areas suffering from extreme poverty are in remote areas that lack infrastructure to support basic functionalities, or the areas are blocked because of violence from other tribes nearby. With isolation like this, natives cannot trade with surrounding areas.
Lack of Savings: Households suffering from food insecurity/ chronic hunger can’t save up their money because they are trying to survive by any means.
Natural Resource Decline: When villages are unable to afford or sustain fertilizer for their farms, they cannot produce goods. Since the ground/soil loses nutrients, proper fertilizer/nutriends need to replenish the ground to be able to sustain produce.
Technological Reversal: Since HIV/AIDS is the major reason of death in many African regions, the oldest children are often accountable for taking care of the rest of the family. More often times than not, the oldest children have not been taught.. or “trained” to farm, therefore depending on the goods that the village produces. This reverses the progress of the village since more people are dependent other than productive.
Adverse Productivity Shock: Africa’s region is prone to extreme dry weather, producing heat waves, droughts, and dangerous weather for malaria. If any African country is hit with any of the listed problems, the impact may last years, if not decades.
Governance Patterns and Failures:
Senegal is receiving financial and technical assistance from the World Bank to reform public finance management in order to root out corruption to create a more transparent government. Senegal also created the National Anti-Corruption and Fraud Office to defeat government and citizen corruption.
Currently, Senegal is undergoing the Water and Sanitation Millennium Project. This works to improve access to drinking water, sewage, urban services, adequate sanitation, more efficient infrastructure, and a better distribution of clean water overall.
Due to rainfall during Senegal’s planting season, the weather yielded a little amount of crops, and not very good quality. A program created by the World Bank’s West African Agricultural Productivity Program is helping farmers with subsidized seeds— which are guaranteed to produce higher amounts of yields since they resist droughts.
There’s a large drainage problem in Mali. Local government in Bamako, Mali are helping aid and finance the building of infrastructure to create cutters and drains to help in flood situations.
The West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program (WAAAPP) is helping countries such as Mali is strengthening systems for farming and pastoral communities stronger against weather (excess rain, excess drought)
More than 2,000 meters of riverbanks are now protective of the Sofara and Gnimitongo villages from catastrophic flooding. The safeguards along the river not only prevent flooding, but it also increases productivity in rice production.